In the vicinity of the village of Birżebbuġa there is Għar Dalam literally meaning a dark cave. Għar Dalam Cave is a highly important site as it was here that the earliest evidence of human presence on Malta was discovered, dating back to the Neolithic Period some 7,400 years ago. The display area consists of two parts: the cave and the museum, which exhibits a remarkable wealth of finds from animal bones to human artefacts. An overlaying river running at right angles formed the cave. It is some 144 metres deep, but only the first fifty metres are open to visitors. The lowermost layers, more than 500,000 years old, contain the fossil bones of dwarf elephants, hippopotami, micro-mammals and birds. Above the pebble layer that follows is the so-called ‘deer’ layer, dated to around 18,000 years ago. The top layer dates to less than 10,000 years and holds evidence of the first human on the Island. Experts hold that these remains suggest that the Islands were once a land bridge to continental Europe.
Other remains include those of prehistoric temple or settlement, Borġ-in-Nadur, which date from the Bronze Age. The settelment was fortified with a large stone wall which is still visible today. These temples ruins are important because they appear to reveal not only a four-apse temple (c.2000 BC), but also an authentic fortified, Bronze Age domestic settlement. The remains of a large, defensive wall lie nearby, running across the head of a promontory between two valleys leading down to two bays. The wall was built facing the inland, and thus the village would have the sea to its back. This logistic situation leads scholars to believe that the people living in the village were much more afraid of being attacked from the land rather than the sea. Traces of the Bronze Age huts were discovered lying just behind the wall and the depth of the deposits was very shallow, covering the remains of the Temple Period. Archaeologists have found evidence, which shows that the Neolithic population became extinct and the islands were uninhabited. Archaeologists think that this could be due to no agricultural produce, or to civil warfare because of temple piques, or due to the Neolithic population being murdered by war-like tribes.